This model describes the mass flow rate and pressure difference relation of an orifice in the form

V̇ = C Δpm,

where is the volume flow rate, C is a flow coefficient and m is the flow exponent. The flow coefficient is

C = CD A (2/ρ0)0.5,

where CD is the discharge coefficient, A is the cross section area and ρ0 is the mass density at the medium default pressure, temperature and humidity.

For turbulent flow, set m=1/2 and for laminar flow, set m=1. Large openings are characterized by values close to 0.5, while values near 0.65 have been found for small crack-like openings (Dols and Walton, 2002).



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