The package Buildings.HeatTransfer consists of models for heat transfer. The models have the same interface as models of the package Modelica.Thermal.HeatTransfer.

This user's guide describes the model structure and how to instantiate models for heat transfer calculations.

Model Structure

The models that compute heat transfer in solids consist of data records for the materials and of models that compute the heat transfer. The data records are composed hierarchically and consist of data records that define material properties with thermal storage (Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Solids) and of material properties of thermal resistors with no heat storage (Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Resistances). These records are used to assemble layers that define the thermal properties of constructions (Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.OpaqueConstructions).

This layer definition is then used in models that compute the heat conduction. Like the materials, these models are assembled hierarchically. The simplest model is Buildings.HeatTransfer.Conduction.SingleLayer for heat conduction through a single layer of material. If the material's specific heat capacity is non-zero, then the model solves the Fourier equation

dT ⁄ dt = k ⁄ (ρ c) d2T ⁄ dx2

If ρ c=0, then the model computes steady-state heat conduction

Q = A k (Ta-Tb)

The boundary conditions for this model are the temperatures and heat flow rates at the material interface.

The model Buildings.HeatTransfer.Conduction.SingleLayer is then used to construct the heat conductor Buildings.HeatTransfer.Conduction.MultiLayer that has multiple layers of material. Some layers may be computed transient (if ρ c > 0) and others are computed steady-state. The boundary conditions for this model are its surface temperatures and heat flow rates.

To model convective heat transfer, instances of the model Buildings.HeatTransfer.Convection are used, which allow using a convective heat transfer coefficient that is fixed or that is a function of the temperature difference between the solid surface and the fluid.

Definition of Materials and Constructions

This section describes how to specify materials, and how to instantiate models that compute the heat transfer. The section describes the syntax used to declare heat conduction models. Note that such syntax is typically generated through the use of a graphical user interface that will show fields that can be edited and that provide options for predefined data that may be used as-is or adjusted for a particular building.

Suppose we want to model a construction with a surface area of 20 m2 that consists of a 0.1 m insulation and 0.2 m concrete. This can be accomplished as follows.

Definition of Materials

First, we define the materials as

  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Solids.InsulationBoard insulation(x=0.1, nStaRef=4);
  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Solids.Concrete concrete(x=0.2, nStaRef=4);

Here, we selected to use four state variables for each material layer.

Next, we define the construction. In the room model, the convention is that the first material layer faces the outside, and the last material layer faces the room-side. Therefore, the declaration for an exterior wall with insulation at the outside is

     wall(nLay=2, material={insulation,concrete});

(Note that nLay must be set to the number of layers to allow a Modelica translator to know how many layers there are prior to translating the model.)

Alternatively, to model the insulation in steady-state, we can set its heat capacity to zero by declaring

  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Solids.InsulationBoard insulation(c=0, x=0.1, nStaRef=4);

Instead of specifying a material with specific heat capacity and setting c=0, materials from the library Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Resistances can be used. For example, for a floor with carpet, the declaration would be

  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Resistances.Carpet carpet;
  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Solids.Concrete    concrete(x=0.2, nStaRef=4);
       floor(nLay=2, material={concrete, carpet});

To change the thermal resistance, we could have written

  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Resistances.Carpet carpet(R=0.3);


  Buildings.HeatTransfer.Data.Resistances.Generic carpet(R=0.3);

Both definitions are identical.

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