This package contains components to model **1-dimensional
heat transfer** with lumped elements. This allows especially
to model heat transfer in machines provided the parameters of the
lumped elements, such as the heat capacity of a part, can be
determined by measurements (due to the complex geometries and many
materials used in machines, calculating the lumped element
parameters from some basic analytic formulas is usually not
possible).

Example models how to use this library are given in subpackage
**Examples**.

For a first simple example, see **Examples.TwoMasses**
where two masses with different initial temperatures are getting in
contact to each other and arriving after some time at a common
temperature.

**Examples.ControlledTemperature** shows how to hold a
temperature within desired limits by switching on and off an
electric resistor.

A more realistic example is provided in
**Examples.Motor** where the heating of an electrical
motor is modelled, see the following screen shot of this
example:

The **filled** and **non-filled red
squares** at the left and right side of a component
represent **thermal ports** (connector HeatPort).
Drawing a line between such squares means that they are thermally
connected. The variables of a HeatPort connector are the
temperature **T** at the port and the heat flow rate
**Q_flow** flowing into the component (if Q_flow is
positive, the heat flows into the element, otherwise it flows out
of the element):

Modelica.SIunits.Temperature T "absolute temperature at port in Kelvin"; Modelica.SIunits.HeatFlowRate Q_flow "flow rate at the port in Watt";

Note, that all temperatures of this package, including initial
conditions, are given in Kelvin. For convenience, in subpackages
**HeatTransfer.Celsius**,
**HeatTransfer.Fahrenheit** and
**HeatTransfer.Rankine** components are provided such
that source and sensor information is available in degree Celsius,
degree Fahrenheit, or degree Rankine, respectively. Additionally,
in package **SIunits.Conversions** conversion
functions between the units Kelvin and Celsius, Fahrenheit, Rankine
are provided. These functions may be used in the following way:

importSI=Modelica.SIunits;importModelica.SIunits.Conversions.*; ...parameterSI.Temperature T = from_degC(25); // convert 25 degree Celsius to Kelvin

There are several other components available, such as AxialConduction (discretized PDE in axial direction), which have been temporarily removed from this library. The reason is that these components reference material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and currently the Modelica design group is discussing a general scheme to describe material properties.

For technical details in the design of this library, see the
following reference:

**Michael Tiller (2001)**: Introduction to Physical Modeling with
Modelica. Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston.

**Acknowledgements:**

Several helpful remarks from the following persons are
acknowledged: John Batteh, Ford Motors, Dearborn, U.S.A; Anton Haumer, Technical Consulting
& Electrical Engineering, Germany; Ludwig Marvan, VA TECH ELIN
EBG Elektronik GmbH, Wien, Austria; Hans Olsson, Dassault Systèmes
AB, Sweden; Hubertus Tummescheit, Lund Institute of Technology,
Lund, Sweden.

**Main Authors:**-
Anton Haumer

Technical Consulting & Electrical Engineering

D-93049 Regensburg, Germany

email: a.haumer@haumer.at

Copyright © 2001-2019, Modelica Association and contributors

Name | Description |
---|---|

Examples | Example models to demonstrate the usage of package Modelica.Thermal.HeatTransfer |

Components | Lumped thermal components |

Sensors | Thermal sensors |

Sources | Thermal sources |

Celsius | Components with Celsius input and/or output |

Fahrenheit | Components with Fahrenheit input and/or output |

Rankine | Components with Rankine input and/or output |

Interfaces | Connectors and partial models |

*July 15, 2002*by Michael Tiller, Martin Otter and Nikolaus Schürmann:

Implemented.*June 13, 2005*by Anton Haumer

Refined placing of connectors (cosmetic).

Refined all Examples; removed Examples.FrequencyInverter, introducing Examples.Motor

Introduced temperature dependent correction (1 + alpha*(T - T_ref)) in Fixed/PrescribedHeatFlow- v1.1.1 2007/11/13 Anton Haumer

components moved to sub-packages - v1.2.0 2009/08/26 Anton Haumer

added component ThermalCollector

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