All two and three-way valves have a parameter
`dpFixed_nominal`

. This parameter can be set to a
positive (non-zero) value to model a pressure drop that is in
series to the valve. If `dpFixed_nominal=0`

, then only
the valve pressure drop is modeled.

For example, in the schematics below, a valve and a fixed resistance are modeled in series.

This often introduces an additional nonlinear equation. Suppose that in the above model, the parameters for the flow resistance are

val(dpValve_nominal=6000, dpFixed=0, m_flow_nominal=0.1); res(dp_nominal=10000, m_flow_nominal=0.1);

Instead of this arrangement, the model `res`

can be
deleted and the valve configured as

val(dpValve_nominal=6000, dpFixed=10000, m_flow_nominal=0.1);

This yields the same simulation results, but a nonlinear equation can be avoided in some cases. Although lumping the pressure drop of other components into the valve model violates the intent that in component-based modeling, each component should only model its own behavior, having the option of eliminating a nonlinear equation can be worthwhile.

For three way valves, similar parameters exist for the controlled ports of the valve. For example, consider the configuration below.

Suppose the parameters are

val(dpValve_nominal=6000, dpFixed={0, 0}, m_flow_nominal=0.1); res1(dp_nominal=10000, m_flow_nominal=0.1); res3(dp_nominal=100, m_flow_nominal=0.1);

An equivalent model could be created by deleting the two
resistance models `res1`

and `res3`

, and
configuring the valve as

val(dpValve_nominal=6000, dpFixed={10000, 100}, m_flow_nominal=0.1);

Valves and air dampers should for numerical reasons have a small
leakage flow rate. This leakage *l* is a non-dimensional
number, defined as *l=K _{v}(y=0) ⁄
=K_{v}(y=1)*. A typical default value is

If *l=0*, models will issue an error message as this can in
some situations lead to numerical problems if a flow leg becomes
decoupled from a reference pressure source.

This section describes how valves and dampers can be configured to approximate the travel time of an actuator. Such an approximation can also lead to faster simulation because discrete or fast changes in controllers are damped before they influence the flow network.

The valves and dampers in the package Buildings.Fluid.Actuators
all have a parameter `use_inputFilter`

. This parameter
is used as follows:

- If
`use_inputFilter=false`

, then the actual valve or damper position is equal to the input signal`y`

. - If
`use_inputFilter=true`

, then the actual valve or damper position is computed in such a way that it approximates a valve motor. This approximation is implemented using a 2nd order low-pass filter. The filter has a parameter`riseTime`

, which by default is set to*120*seconds. The rise time is the time required to reach 99.6% of the opening.

Using a filter often leads to a more robust simulation, because
a step change in the input signal is "smoothened" by the filter,
and hence the flow network is only exposed to a continuously
differentiable change in the input signal. However, if the filter
is part of a closed loop control, then the transient response gets
changed. Therefore, if the parameter `use_inputFilter`

is changed, control gains may need to be retuned.

For example, suppose there is a closed loop control with a
PI-controller Buildings.Controls.Continuous.LimPID
and a valve, configured with `use_inputFilter=true`

and
`riseTime=120`

seconds. Assume that the transient
response of the other dynamic elements in the control loop is fast
compared to the rise time of the filter. Then, a proportional gain
of `k=0.1`

and an integrator time constant of
`Ti=120`

seconds often yields satisfactory closed loop
control performance. These values may need to be changed for
different applications as they are also a function of the loop
gain. If the control loop shows oscillatory behavior, then reduce
`k`

and/or increase `Ti`

. If the control loop
reacts too slow, do the opposite.

We will now show how the parameter `riseTime`

affects
the actual position of a control valve. The figure below shows a
model with two control valves. The valve `val1`

is
configured with `use_inputFilter=true`

and a rise time
`riseTime=120`

seconds. The grey motor symbol above the
control valve `val1`

indicates that
`use_inputFilter=true`

.

If these valves both have a step input signal at *10*
seconds, then the actual opening of the valves are as follows:

Thus, in the valve `val1`

, the mass flow rate will
slowly increase, whereas in `val2`

, the mass flow rate
changes instantaneously.

If `use_inputFilter=true`

, then the parameter
`y_start`

can be used to set the initial position of the
actuator, and the parameter `init`

can be used to
configure how the position should be initialized.

For most applications, the default values are appropriate. Although adding a filter increases the number of equations, it can reduce computing time because the equations are easier to solve when a controller switches.

The model Buildings.Fluid.Actuators.Motors.IdealMotor models a motor with hysteresis. It is more detailed than the above approximation. However, it can significantly increase computing time because it generates a state event whenever the valve position changes.

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