This element consists of a backlash element connected in series to a spring and damper element which are connected in parallel. The spring constant shall be non-zero, otherwise the component cannot be used.

In combination with components IdealGear, the ElastoBacklash2 model can be used to model a gear box with backlash, elasticity and damping.

During initialization, the backlash characteristic is replaced by a continuous approximation in the backlash region, in order to reduce problems during initialization, especially for inverse models.

If the backlash b is smaller as 1e-10 rad (especially, if b=0), then the backlash is ignored and the component reduces to a spring/damper element in parallel.

In the backlash region (-b/2 ≤ flange_b.phi - flange_a.phi - phi_rel0 ≤ b/2) no torque is exerted (flange_b.tau = 0). Outside of this region, contact is present and the contact torque is basically computed with a linear spring/damper characteristic:

   desiredContactTorque = c*phi_contact + d*der(phi_contact)

            phi_contact = phi_rel - phi_rel0 - b/2 if phi_rel - phi_rel0 >  b/2
                        = phi_rel - phi_rel0 + b/2 if phi_rel - phi_rel0 < -b/2

            phi_rel     = flange_b.phi - flange_a.phi;

This torque characteristic leads to the following difficulty:

In the literature this issue seems to be not discussed. For this reason, the most simple approach is used in the ElastoBacklash2 model, by slightly changing the linear spring/damper characteristic to:

    // Torque characteristic when phi_rel > phi_rel0
    if phi_rel - phi_rel0 < b/2 then
       tau_c = 0;          // spring torque
       tau_d = 0;          // damper torque
       flange_b.tau = 0;
       tau_c = c*(phi_rel - phi_rel0);    // spring torque
       tau_d = d*der(phi_rel);            // damper torque
       flange_b.tau = if tau_c + tau_d ≤ 0 then 0 else tau_c + tau_d;
    end if;

Note, when sticking would occur (tau_c + tau_d ≤ 0), then the contact torque is explicitly set to zero.

This model of backlash is slightly different to the ElastoBacklash component:

See also the discussion State Selection in the User's Guide of the Rotational library.

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