Thermoregulation [Benzinger1969,Hardy1961,Schreider1957] maintains the body temperature around 37degC. Heat is produced mostly by metabolismus or work of muscles [Saltin1966]. It is transported to environment[Consolazio1963] through skin, where the skin temperature depends on skin blood flow [Adolph1946,Hardy1938,Hsieh1965,Kamon1968,Pennes1948]. Body can be also heated or cooled by food or drinks [Gephart1915].

The temperature is from heat energy calculated using specific heat capacity of tissues [Burton1935,Lipkin1954].

Thermoreceptors measure the temperature throughout the body and send the signal to hypothalamic centre of termoregulation[Kelso1982,Dodt1952,Hensel1953]. Main response on hypertermia [Blatteis1997,Hart1982,Gaus1917,Consolazio1961] is skin vasodilation and sweating[Armstrong1991,Epstein1999,Latzka1999,Morimoto1998,Quinton1991,Sato1977,1989a,b], where sweat glands could suffer with fatigue[Wyndham1966]. Main responses on hypotermia [Molnar1946,Talbott1941] is skin vasoconstriction and shivering[Carlson1954,Lampietro1960]. The neural acclination are more complex and is different for short time and long time responses [Horowitz2003,Armstrong1991,Piwonka1967].

The spontaneus loss of heat is by lungs evaporization[Brabbia1957].

Temperature has effect on chemical reactions, so the metabolic processes are dependent on it [Abramson1958,Consolazio1961,Dirmi1980,Talbott1941,Matsuoka1994] as well as metabolism of leg muscle[Fink1975]. But the main problem with temperature is denaturisation of proteins at high temperature [Katschinski2004].


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Marek Matejak


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Tom Coleman: HumMod 1.6, University of Mississippi Medical Center

Copyright © 2008-2015 Marek Matejak, Charles University in Prague.

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