Heart pump

Cardiac output (CO) as a mean blood flow from heart ventricle is heart rate (HR) multiplied by stroke volume (SV), where stroke volume is difference of end diastolic volume (EDV) [Gaasch1975,Carter1998] and end systolic volume (ESV) [Noda1993]. The HR and heart contractility (in the meaning of ESV) [Suga1976] can be influenced by nervus vagus (main parasympathicus autonomic neural pathway) [Xenopoulos1994], epinephrine [Collins-Nakai1994] or angiotensin II [Kumagai1994]. The most comon descriptions are pressure-volume relations [Sawaga1988] as in famous A-V fistula experiments [Guyton1961] or filling pressure experiments [Suga1974] or less invasive exercise experiments [Little1993].

There is some evidence of non-steady state behaviour of end diastolic volume, because the stroke volume is dependent on heart rate [Ross1965,Sugimoto1966].

Blood viscosity[Begg1966,Schrier1970]

Vasoconstriction [Mellander1992, Shigemi1994]

The compliance of systemic arteries is constant around normal working conditions [Roach1957].

Systemic veins [Shigemi1994,Echt1974,Gauer1956]

Muscle pump effect [Armstrong1985,Laughlin1987,Laughlin1983]

Sequestered volume [Ochsner1951,Mayerson1939,Bevegard1962,Pollack1949,Block1930,Henry1950,Thomson1928]

Kidney blood flow [Skarlatos1993,Manning1987] - effect to renal arteries [Skov1996]

-myogenic [Auckland1989,Drummond2008,Heyeraas1987]

-tubuloglomerular feedback [Moore1990,Drummond2008,Ito1990]

Splanchnic circulation [Maass-Moreno1992,Bradley1953,Bradley1952,Mitzner1974,Laine1979]

- effect of norepinephrine [Greenway1985,Laut1987]

- effect of histamine [Greenway1973]

Brain blood flow [Kety1948]

Blood Volume regulations

- hypoproteinemia [Manning1990,Manning1983]

Autoregulation of circulation

- CO on CO2 [Davidson1986]

- ,Hogan1990,Lash1987,Malo1984,Marshall1995,Metting1989,Metting1988,Weber2000,Borgström1975,Whalen1974,Frisbee2000,Berg1997,Burattini1994,POHOST1976,Archer1996,Goodman1978,Granger1976,Granger1969,Harder1996,Harder1996,Marshall1988,Frisbee2000,Kunert1996,Prewitt1976,Kuwahira1993]

RAAS and other regulations .. see hormones, nerves and drugs


Name Description
 References References
 Heart Heart Components
 Circulation Blood Cardio-Vascular Distribution
 Microcirculation Tissue vessels hydraulic conductance (=1/resistance)
 Blood Red Cells and Blood Properties



Marek Matejak


Physiomodel License 1.0

Date of:



User's Guide

zotero: Physiomodel


zotero: HumMod References

Copyright © 2008-2015 Marek Matejak, Charles University in Prague.

Generated at 2021-01-17T01:59:54Z by OpenModelicaOpenModelica 1.17.0~dev-339-gb5efb3c using GenerateDoc.mos